CWAP-404 Valid Dump : Certified Wireless Analysis Professional

CWAP-404 real exams

Exam Code: CWAP-404

Exam Name: Certified Wireless Analysis Professional

Updated: Jul 19, 2021

Q & A: 0 Questions and Answers

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CWNP CWAP-404 Exam Topics:


Protocol Analysis - 15%

Capture 802.11 frames using the appropriate methods- Select capture devices
  • Laptop protocol analyzers
  • APs, controllers, and other management solutions
  • Specialty devices (hand-held analyzers and custom-built devices)

- Install monitor mode drivers
- Select capture location(s)
- Capture sufficient data for analysis
- Capture all channels or capture on a single channel as needed
- Capture roaming events

Understand and apply the common capture configuration parameters available in protocol analysis tools- Save to disk
- Packet slicing
- Event triggers
- Buffer options
- Channels and channel widths
- Capture filters
- Channel scanning and dwell time
Analyze 802.11 frame captures to discover problems and find solutions- Use appropriate display filters to view relevant frames and packets
- Use colorization to highlight important frames and packets
- Configure and display columns for analysis purposes
- View frame and packet decodes while understanding the information shown and applying it to the analysis process
- Use multiple adapters and channel aggregation to view captures from multiple channels
- Implement protocol analyzer decryption procedures
- View and use a capture’s statistical information for analysis
- Use expert mode for analysis
- View and understand peer maps as they relate to communications analysis
Utilize additional tools that capture 802.11 frames for analysis and troubleshooting- WLAN scanners and discovery tools
- Protocol capture visualization and analysis tools
- Centralized monitoring, alerting, and forensic tools
Ensure appropriate troubleshooting methods are used with all analysis types- Define the problem
- Determine the scale of the problem
- Identify probable causes
- Capture and analyze the data
- Observe the problem
- Choose appropriate remediation steps
- Document the problem and resolution

Spectrum Analysis - 10%

Capture RF spectrum data and understand the common views available in spectrum analyzers- Install, configure, and use spectrum analysis software and hardware
- Capture RF spectrum data using handheld, laptop-based, and infrastructure spectrum capture solutions
- Understand and use spectrum analyzer views
  • Real-time FFT
  • Waterfall, swept spectrogram, density, and historic views
  • Utilization and duty cycle
  • Detected devices
  • WLAN integration views
Analyze spectrum captures to identify relevant RF information and issues- RF noise floor in an environment
- Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) for a given signal
- Sources of RF interference and their locations
- RF channel utilization
- Non-Wi-Fi transmitters and their impact on WLAN communications
- Overlapping and non-overlapping adjacent channel interference
- Poor performing or faulty radios
Analyze spectrum captures to identify various device signatures- Identify various 802.11 PHYs
  • DSSS
  • OFDM
  • Channel widths
  • Primary channel

- Identify non-802.11 devices based on RF behaviors and signatures

  • Frequency hopping devices
  • IoT devices
  • Microwave ovens
  • Video devices
  • RF Jammers
  • Cordless phones
Use centralized spectrum analysis solutions- AP-based spectrum analysis
- Sensor-based spectrum analysis

PHY Layers and Technologies - 10%

Understand and describe the functions of the PHY layer and the PHY protocol data units (PPDUs)- DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum)
- HR/DSSS (High Rate/Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum)
- OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing)
- ERP (Extended Rate PHY)
- HT (High Throughput)
- VHT (Very High Throughput)
- HE (High Efficiency)
  • HE NULL data packets
Apply the understanding of PHY technologies, including PHY headers, preambles, training fields, frame aggregation, and data rates, to captured data
Identify and use PHY information provided within pseudo-headers in protocol analyzers- Pseudo-Header formats
  • Radiotap
  • Per Packet Information (PPI)

- Key pseudo-header content

  • Guard intervals
  • Resource units allocation
  • PPDU formats
  • Signal strength
  • Noise
  • Data rate and MCS index
  • Length information
  • Channel center frequency or received channel
  • Channel properties
Recognize the limits of protocol analyzers to capture PHY information including NULL data packets and PHY headers
Use appropriate capture devices based on proper understanding of PHY types- Supported PHYs
- Supported spatial streams

MAC Sublayer and Functions - 25%

Understand frame encapsulation and frame aggregation- Frame aggregation (A-MSDU and A-MPDU)
Identify and use MAC information in captured data for analysis- Management, Control, and Data frames
- MAC frame formats and contents
  • Frame Control field
  • To DS and From DS fields
  • Address fields
  • Frame Check Sequence (FCS) field

- 802.11 Management frame formats

  • Information Elements
  • Authentication
  • Association and Reassociation
  • Beacon
  • Prove Request and Probe Response

- Data and QoS Data frame formats
- 802.11 Control frame formats

  • Acknowledgement (ACK)
  • Request to Send/Clear to Send (RTS/CTS)
  • Block Acknowledgement and related frames
  • Trigger frames
  • VHT/HE NDP announcements
  • Multiuser RTS
Validate BSS configuration through protocol analysis- Country code
- Minimum basic rate
- Supported rates and coding schemes
- Beacon interval
- WMM settings
- RSN settings
- HT/VHT/HE operations
- Channel width
- Primary channel
- Hidden or non-broadcast SSIDs
Identify and analyze CRC error frames and retransmitted frames

WLAN Medium Access - 10%

Understand 802.11 contention algorithms in-depth and know how they impact WLANs- Distributed Coordination Function (DCF)
  • Carrier Sense (CS) and Energy Detect (ED)
  • Network Allocation Vector (NAV)
  • Contention Windows (CW) and random backoff
  • Interframe spacing

- Enhanced Distributed Channel Access (EDCA)

  • EDCA Function (EDCAF)
  • Access Categories and Queues
  • Arbitration Interframe Space Number (AIFSN)

- Wi-Fi Multimedia (WMM)

  • WMM parameters
  • WMM-Power Save
  • WMM-Admission Control
Analyze QoS configuration and operations- Verify QoS parameters in capture files
- Ensure QoS is implemented end-to-end

802.11 Frame Exchanges - 30%

Capture, understand, and analyze BSS discovery and joining frame exchanges- BSS discovery
- 802.11 Authentication and Association
- 802.1X/EAP exchanges
- Pre-Shared Key authentication
- Four-way handshake
- Group key exchange
- Simultaneous Authentication of Equals (SAE)
- Opportunistic Wireless Encryption (OWE)
- WPA2 and WPA3
- Fast secure roaming mechanisms
  • Fast BSS Transition (FT) roaming exchanges
  • Pre-FT roaming exchanges

- Neighbor discovery (802.11k/v)
- Hotspot 2.0 protocols and operations from the client access perspective

  • ANQP
  • Initial access
Analyze roaming behavior and resolve problems related to roaming- Sticky clients
- Excessive roaming
- Channel aggregation for roaming analysis
Analyze data frame exchanges- Data frames and acknowledgement frames
- RTS/CTS data frame exchanges
- QoS Data frame exchanges
- Block Acknowledgement exchanges
Analyze MIMO and multiuser-specific transmission methods- MIMO
  • Transmit Beamforming (TxBF)


  • Scheduling and trigger frames
Analyze behavior and solve problems related to MAC layer operations- Power Save operations
- Protection mechanisms
- Load balancing
- Band Steering

CWNP CWAP-404 Exam Certification Details:

Exam CodeCWAP-404 CWAP
Recommended TrainingCWAP self-paced training kit, Training Class
Exam RegistrationPEARSON VUE
Duration90 minutes
Exam NameWireless Analysis Professional
Exam Price$275 USD
Sample QuestionsCWNP CWAP-404 Sample Questions
Number of Questions60
Passing Score70%

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